- What is Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
- Complementary Programs and Methods
- Manufacturing as a Linear System
- Benefits of Linear Manufacturing
- Risks of Linear Manufacturing
- Industrial Ecology
- Manufacturing as a “Closed Loop” System
- Eliminate Waste from Manufacturing?
- Eco-industrial parks... by design
- Design for the Environment
Seven Requirements for Sustainable Design
- The product must be made from renewable material
- The product must be non-toxic in use and disposal
- The product must be powered by means of a renewal energy source
- The product must be manufactured by means of a renewal energy source
- The product must be transported by means of a renewal energy source
- The product must be manufactured by a means that does not disrupt the ecosystem
- Consumption can not outpace production
What is Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
environmentally conscious manufacturing
a system integrating product and design issues with those of manufacturing and production to manage the flow of waste
the goal is to ultimately eliminate environmental impact while maximizing resource efficiency
- The ultimate goal of ECM is waste elimination and the elimination of environmental impacts throughout the manufacturing process
- ECM decisions must be integrated into the business culture
- ECM systems must focus on Product, Process and Packaging
- ECM must be integrated into the product and process design system
- ECM is a cross-functional effort
- ECM is dynamic
proactive, not remedial
Complementary Programs and Methods
programs associated with ECM
- Environmental Performance is not Prescriptive
- Provide Tools to control environmental impacts of activities, products and services
- Compatible with ISO 9000
- Substances from the Earth’s crust must not systematically increase in nature
- Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in nature
- The diversity of nature must not be systematically deteriorated
- Just and efficient use of energy and resources
The Funnel NS uses a metaphorical tool to understand the environmental predicament, and the limited room for maneuvering.
Systematic Conditions NS works with scientists to develop a set of basic principles used to help guide organizations towards sustainability.
Strategy for Action NS creates and tests specific tools used for integrating sustainability into complex organizations' strategic planning
- Eliminate expensive “end of pipe” pollution containment
- Substitution of non-polluting products for polluting products
- An EPA initiative following the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990
- Often referred to as P3 – “Pollution Prevention Pays” since the elimination of waste is a form of process efficiency
- Industrial Ecology
- Design for the Environment
Manufacturing as a Linear System
- model used since the industrial revolution
- characterized as “take, make, waste”
Benefits of Linear Manufacturing
- marketplace demand for product is satisfied 😊
- generates jobs 👷
- generates corporate profits 🤑
Risks of Linear Manufacturing
- Eventual Material and Energy Depletion
- Expanding Landfill needs
- Ever continuing risks to the ecosystem
we will never run out of oil bc price will rise with scarcity before its all gone
The interdependent relationship of all the natural inputs (solar energy, water, oxygen) and outputs (heat, water, carbon dioxide) in order to achieve a continuous cycle
Emergence of Cyclical Industrial Models
1989 Robert Ayres developed the concept of
Industrial Metabolismthe transformation of material and energy into product and byproduct (waste) Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos developed the concept of
Industrial Ecosystemswhere the waste produced from one company would be used as resources by another Hardin Tibbs writes “Industrial Ecology: An Environmental Agenda for Industry”
1993 Paul Hawken writes The Ecology of Commerce Braden Allenby / Thomas Graedel write Industrial Ecology
a model for manufacturing production that emulates natural ecosystems, where the by-product of one process is used as an input into another process.
Industrial ecology interacts with natural ecosystems and attempts to move from a linear to closed loop system. Like natural ecosystems, industrial ecology is in a continual state of flux.
The concept requires that an individual system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them. It is a systems view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, to finished material, to component, to product, to obsolete product, and to ultimate disposal.
Factors to be optimized include:
The linear manufacturing model achieves none of these.
Manufacturing as a “Closed Loop” System
Eliminate Waste from Manufacturing?
using waste as raw material input in the same process
or use as raw material in another manufacturing process
The Kalundborg Eco-Industrial Park is the first realization of industrial symbiosis. The collaboration arose unintentionally through private initiatives. At the center of the exchange is the Asnaes Power Station, a 1500MW coal-fired power plant, which has material and energy links with the community and several other companies. Surplus heat from this power plant is used to heat 3500 local homes in addition to a nearby fish farm, whose sludge is then sold as a fertilizer. Steam from the power plant is sold to Novo Nordisk, a pharmaceutical manufacturer and to Statoil power plant. This reuse of heat reduces the amount of thermal pollution discharged to a nearby fjord. Additionally, a by-product from the power plant's sulfur dioxide scrubber contains gypsum, which is sold to a wallboard manufacturer. Almost all of the manufacturer's gypsum needs are met this way, which reduces the amount of open-pit mining needed. Furthermore, fly ash from the power plant is used for road building and cement production. These exchanges of waste, water and materials have greatly increased environmental and economic efficiency within the community
Eco-industrial parks... by design
it happened by chance in Kalundborg, so we could do it by design too. The model has been emulated in several instances
- cluster EICs
- virtual EICs
- zero emission EICs
- Berks Country Eco-Industrial Park Berks County, PA A state/private project converting landfill into energy system for manufacturing.
- Brownsville Eco-Industrial Park Brownsville, Texas Cross-border multi-firm resource-sharing strategy.
- Burnside Eco-Industrial Park Nova Scotia, Canada Eco-Efficiency Center nonprofit run in coordination with Dalhouise University to green the park and serve as business coordinator both within park and regionally.
- Cabazon Resource Recovery Park Indio, California An EIP set up by a Native American tribe currently running a biomass electricity generation plant and a recycling-manufacturing company making products of used tires.
- Civano Industrial Eco Park Tucson, Arizona Business center for the development of sustainable technology.
- Coffee Creek Center Chesterton, IN A residential, office, and retail model supporting green tech and consulting groups.
- East Shore Eco-Industrial Park Oakland, California Group of four alternative waste processing companies operating under environmental schemata, with expansion plans under way
- Fairfield Eco-Industrial Park Baltimore, Maryland Boasts an impressive list of major US and international corporations adhering to strict eco-guidelines in city-created “empowerment zone”.
- Franklin County Eco-Industrial Park Youngsville, North Carolina Eco-design solar-powered building in which all tenants sell or service technology or products involving alternate energy, recycling, or sustainable building.
- The Green Institute Minneapolis, Minnesota Cluster of four programs including re-use center to redistribute usable materials to public, a community gardening project, non- profit green technology advocacy group, and an eco-enterprise building housing companies, non-profits, and listed programs.
- Plattsburgh Eco-Industrial Park Plattsburgh, New York Research, recreational, industrial, and commercial facilities on abandoned air force base near Canadian border.
- Port of Cape Charles Sustainable Technologies Industrial Park Eastville, Virginia HUB Zone, foreign trade zone, and Virginia Enterprise Zone with specific incentives for photovoltaic producers, clean fuel vehicle manufacture, and recycled material producers.
- Raymond Green Eco-Industrial Park Raymond, Washington Located within a sustainably harvested forest, works with local resources and processes waste streams on site.
- Riverside Eco- Park Burlington, Vermont (note: now named Intervale Food Center) An agro-industrial park using biomass and other cooperative reprocessing techniques.
- Skagit County Environmental Industrial Park Skagitt County, Washington Sustainably built recovery center as centerpiece of park which includes production, community center, sales and marketing center, and environmental business center.
- Shady Side Eco-Business Park Shady Side, Maryland Marine-based park with high level of local community participation.
- Trenton Eco-Industrial Complex Trenton, New Jersey Urban network, not geographically contiguous.
- The Volunteer Site Chattanooga, Tennessee Business development center site on underused military facility using "cluster" approach to target specific industries.
ECM targets waste and unwanted output waste along the manufacturing process is covered, but what about end of life waste?
We accomplish this with DFE
Design for the Environment
this method takes the ecosystem into account during the design process
MBDC has developed tools to implement sustainable design within an industrial ecology context(the Next Industrial Revolution)
- Design Chemistry
- MB Index of Sustainability
- Technical Nutrient
- Biological Nutrient
- Waste Equals Food
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